1- Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a detrimental plant disorder that occurs most often in strongly acidic, light, sandy soils, where magnesium can be easily leached away. Magnesium is an essential macronutrient constituting 0.2-0.4% of plants' dry matter and is necessary for normal plant growth. Excess potassium, generally due to fertilizers, further aggravates the stress from magnesium deficiency, as does aluminium toxicity.

Magnesium has an important role in photosynthesis because it forms the central atom of chlorophyll. Therefore, without sufficient amounts of magnesium, plants begin to degrade the chlorophyll in the old leaves. This causes the main symptom of magnesium deficiency, interveinal chlorosis, or yellowing between leaf veins, which stay green, giving the leaves a marbled appearance. Due to magnesium’s mobile nature, the plant will first break down chlorophyll in older leaves and transport the Mg to younger leaves which have greater photosynthetic needs. Therefore, the first sign of magnesium deficiency is the chlorosis of old leaves which progresses to the young leaves as the deficiency progresses. Magnesium also acts as an activator for many critical enzymes that are essential in carbon fixation. Thus low amounts of Mg lead to a decrease in photosynthetic and enzymatic activity within the plants. Magnesium is also crucial in stabilizing ribosome structures, hence, a lack of magnesium causes depolymerization of ribosomes leading to premature aging of the plant.[1] After prolonged magnesium deficiency, necrosis and dropping of older leaves occurs. Plants deficient in magnesium also produce smaller, woodier fruits.

Magnesium deficiency may be confused with zinc or chlorine deficiencies, viruses, or natural aging since all have similar symptoms. Adding Mono Magnesium nutrient may magnesium deficiencies. 

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Magnesium.

2- Calcium deficiency

Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient level of available calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or non-transpiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.[1] This may be due to water shortages, which slow the transportation of calcium to the plant, poor uptake of calcium through the stem, or too much nitrogen in the soil.

Possible causes of Calcium deficiency may be acidic, sandy, or coarse soils often contain less calcium. Uneven soil moisture and overuse of fertilizers can also cause calcium deficiency. At times, even with sufficient calcium in the soil, it can be in an insoluble form and is then unusable by the plant or it could be attributed to a "transport protein". Soils containing high phosphorus are particularly susceptible to creating insoluble forms of calcium.

Calcium deficiency symptoms appear initially as localized tissue necrosis leading to stunted plant growth, necrotic leaf margins on young leaves or curling of the leaves, and eventual death of terminal buds and root tips. Generally, the new growth and rapidly growing tissues of the plant are affected first. The mature leaves are rarely if ever affected because calcium accumulates to high concentrations in older leaves.

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Calcium.


3- Iron deficiency

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a plant disorder also known as "lime-induced chlorosis". It can be confused with manganese deficiency. Unlike in hydroponics, deficiency in the soil is rare but iron can be unavailable for absorption if soil or substrate pH is not between about 5 and 6.5. A common problem is excessive alkalinity (the pH is above 6.5). Also, iron deficiency can develop if the soil is too waterlogged or has been overfertilised. Elements like calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, or copper can tie up iron if they are present in high amounts.

Iron is needed to produce chlorophyll, hence its deficiency causes chlorosis (yellow plant syndrome). For example, iron is used in the active site of glutamyl-tRNA reductase, an enzyme needed for the formation of 5-Amino acid which is a precursor of heme and chlorophyll.

Symptoms include leaves turning yellow or brown in the margins between the veins which may remain green, while young leaves may appear to be bleached. Fruit would be of poor quality and quantity. Any plant may be affected, but raspberries and pears are particularly susceptible, as well as most acid-loving plants such as azaleas and camellias.

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Iron.

4- Nitrogen deficiency

All plants require sufficient supplies of macronutrients for healthy growth, and nitrogen (N) is a nutrient that is commonly in limited supply. Nitrogen deficiency in plants can occur when organic matter with high carbon content, such as sawdust, is added to soil. Soil organisms use any nitrogen to break down carbon sources, making N unavailable to plants. This is known as "robbing" the soil of nitrogen. All vegetables apart from nitrogen fixing legumes are prone to this disorder.

Some symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in absence or low supply are but not limited to The chlorophyll content of the plant leaves is reduced which results in pale yellow colour. Older leaves turn completely yellow. Flowering, fruiting, protein and starch contents are reduced. Reduction in protein results in stunted growth and dormant lateral buds.

The visual symptoms of nitrogen deficiency mean that it can be relatively easy to detect in some plant species. Symptoms include poor plant growth, and leaves that are pale green or yellow because they are unable to make sufficient chlorophyll. Leaves in this state are said to be chlorotic. Lower leaves (older leaves) show symptoms first, since the plant will move nitrogen from older tissues to more important younger ones. Nevertheless, plants are reported to show nitrogen deficiency symptoms at different parts. For example, Nitrogen deficiency of tea is identified by retarded shoot growth and yellowing of younger leaves. However, these physical symptoms can also be caused by numerous other stresses, such as deficiencies in other nutrients, toxicity, herbicide injury, disease, insect damage or environmental conditions. Therefore, nitrogen deficiency is most reliably detected by conducting quantitative tests in addition to assessing the plants visual symptoms. These tests include soil tests and plant tissue test.

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Nitrogen.

5- Potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency, also known as potash deficiency, is a plant disorder that is most common on light, sandy soils, because potassium ions (K+) are highly soluble and will easily leach from soils without colloids. Potassium deficiency is also common in chalky or peaty soils with a low clay content. It is also found on heavy clays with a poor structure.

The main role of potassium is to provide the ionic environment for metabolic processes in the cytosol, and as such functions as a regulator of various processes including growth regulation. Plants require potassium ions (K+) for protein synthesis and for the opening and closing of stomata, which is regulated by proton pumps to make surrounding guard cells either turgid or flaccid. A deficiency of potassium ions can impair a plant's ability to maintain these processes. Potassium also functions in other physiological processes such as photosynthesis, protein synthesis, activation of some enzymes.

Typical symptoms of potassium deficiency in plants include brown scorching and curling of leaf tips as well as chlorosis (yellowing) between leaf veins. Purple spots may also appear on the leaf undersides. Plant growth, root development, and seed and fruit development are usually reduced in potassium-deficient plants. Often, potassium deficiency symptoms first appear on older (lower) leaves because potassium is a mobile nutrient, meaning that a plant can allocate potassium to younger leaves when it is K deficient. Deficient plants may be more prone to frost damage and disease, and their symptoms can often be confused with wind scorch or drought. The deficiency is common in several  fruit and vegetable crops.

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Potassium or THC Roid.

6- Phosphorus deficiency

Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4). These anions readily interconvert, and the predominant species is determined by the pH of the solution or soil. Phosphates are required for the biosynthesis of genetic material ans are essential for life. Phosphorus deficiency can be controlled by applying sources of phosphorus such as mono phosphate fertilizers.

In plants, Phosphorus (P) is considered second to nitrogen as the most essential nutrient to ensure health and function. Phosphorus is used by plants in numerous processes such as photophosphorylation, genetic transfer, the transportation of nutrients, and phospholipid cell membranes. Within a plant cell these functions are imperative for function, in photophosphorylation for example the creation of stored energy in plants is a result of a chemical reaction including phosphorus. Phosphorus is a key molecular component of genetic reproduction. When phosphorus is present in inadequate levels, genetic processes such as cell division and plant growth are impaired. Hence, phosphorus deficient plants may mature at a slower rate than plants with adequate amounts of phosphorus. The stunted growth induced by phosphorus deficiency has been correlated with smaller leaf sizes and a lessened number of leaves. Phosphorus deficiency may also create an imbalance in the storage of carbohydrates. Photosynthesis, the main function of plant cells that produces energy from sunlight and water, usually remains at a normal rate under a phosphorus-deficient state. However phosphorus usage in functions within the cell usually slow. This imbalance of rates in phosphorus deficient plants leads to the buildup of excess carbohydrate within the plant. This carbohydrate buildup often can be observed by the darkening of leaves. In some plants the leaf pigment change as a result of this process can turn leaves a dark purplish colour.

To rectify this issue use THC Reskue or THC Mono Phosphorus or THC Roid.

7- Trace Elements deficiency

There is variety of trace element deficiencies, including Molybdenum, Boron,  Zinc, Manganese to name a few. All trace elements are in balance in all THC base mixes and are also available as a supplement in THC Mono Trace Elements mix.

Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a plant disorder that is often confused with, and occurs with, iron deficiency. Most common in poorly drained soils, also where organic matter levels are high. Manganese may be unavailable to plants where pH is high.

Symptoms include yellowing of leaves with smallest leaf veins remaining green to produce a ‘chequered’ effect. The plant may seem to grow away from the problem so that younger leaves may appear to be unaffected. Brown spots may appear on leaf surfaces, and severely affected leaves turn brown and wither.

Manganese deficiency can be easy to spot in plants because, much like magnesium deficiency, the leaves start to turn yellow and undergo interveinal chlorosis. The difference between these two is that the younger leaves near the top of the plant show symptoms first because manganese is not mobile while in magnesium deficiency show symptoms in older leaves near the bottom of the plant.

Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency occurs when plant growth is limited because the plant cannot take up sufficient quantities of this essential micronutrient from its growing medium. For crops growing in soil, this may be a result of low concentrations of Mo in the soil as a whole (i.e. the parent material of the soil is low in Mo), or because the soil Mo is held in forms that are not available to plants – absorption of Mo is strongest in acid soils.

In plants, the primary functions of Mo are related to the valence changes that it undergoes a component of enzymes that catalyse diverse redox reactions.  A large number of Mo-deficiency disorders are associated with the disruption of the normal activity of several enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism.

Molybdenum deficiency symptoms in most plants are associated with a build-up of nitrate in the affected plant part. This is a result of poor nitrate reductase activity. Symptoms include pale leaves with interveinal and marginal chlorosis (yellowing) and necrosis (scald), the whiptail disorder in Brassica crops (especially cauliflower), decreased tasselling in maize and premature germination of maize grain.

Zinc deficiency occurs when plant growth is limited because the plant cannot take up sufficient quantities of this essential micronutrient from its growing medium. It is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in crops and pastures worldwide and causes large losses in crop production and crop quality.

Zinc is an essential micronutrient which means it is essential for plant growth and development, but is required in very small quantities. Zinc requirements vary among crops.

Zinc deficiency symptoms include Chlorosis - yellowing of leaves; often interveinal; in some species, young leaves are the most affected, but in others both old and new leaves are chlorotic, Necrotic spots - death of leaf tissue on areas of chlorosis, Bronzing of leaves - chlorotic areas may turn bronze coloured, Rosetting of leaves - zinc-deficient dicotyledons often have shortened internodes, so leaves are clustered on the stem, Stunting of plants - small plants may occur as a result of reduced growth or because of reduced internode elongation, Dwarf leaves ('little leaf') - small leaves that often show chlorosis, necrotic spots or bronzing, Malformed leaves - leaves are often narrower or have wavy margins.

Boron deficiency is a common deficiency of the micronutrient boron in plants. It is the most widespread micronutrient deficiency around the world and causes large losses in crop production and crop quality. Boron deficiency affects vegetative and reproductive growth of plants, resulting in inhibition of cell expansion and reduced fertility.

Plants contain boron both in a water-soluble and insoluble form. In intact plants, the amount of water-soluble boron fluctuates with the amount of boron supplied, while insoluble boron does not. The appearance of boron deficiency coincides with the decrease of water-insoluble boron. It appears that the insoluble boron is the functional form while the soluble boron represents the surplus.

Boron is essential for the growth of higher plants. The primary function of the element is to provide structural integrity to the cell wall in plants. Other functions likely include the maintenance of the plasma membrane and other metabolic pathways.

To rectify this issues use THC Reskue or THC Mono Trace Elements and THC B-52.

reference: wikipedia, exceldist, botany, cblog